Statistics Applied Clinica

Statistics Applied Clinical RE


Questionaries answers





























1. If a research is examining how exposure to cigarette ads affects smoking behavior, cigarette ads are what type of variable?


a. Quantitative

b. Qualitative

c. Dependent

d. Independent


2. If a researcher is examining how exposure to cigarettes ads affects smoking behavior, smoking behavior is what type of variable


a. Ratio

b. Independent

c. Dependent

d. Nominal


3. You are asked to design a study measuring how nutritional status is related to serum lead levels in children. You assess calcium and fat intake, as well as serum lead levels in a sample of 30 children who are 2 years old. Lead levels are measured in micrograms per deciliter (mcg/dL). One child had a lead level of 17 mcg/dL. This is an example of what type of variable?


a. Quantitative

b. Qualitative

c. Dependent

d. Nominal



4. You are asked to design a study to examine the relationship between preoperative blood pressure and postoperative hematocrit

4.1 What is your dependent variable?

The dependent variable is the postoperative hematocrit



5. You are later asked to do a follow-up study to see whether requiring an intraoperative blood transfusion impacted postoperative rates of poor mental health, specifically depression.


5.1 What is your independent variable?

Intraoperative blood transfusion


5.2 How you will measure them and Why?

The Intraoperative blood transfusion will be measure in ratio mm/minute because is a quantitative variable. The Poor mental health, specifically depression will be measure in an ordinal measurement level


6. You decide to measure depression on the following scale: 1= low, 2 =moderate, 3= high.


6.1 What level of measurements is this?

The level of measurement is Ordinal


6.2. Why might you want to improve it?

We want to improve them to put the observations in rank order to facilitate for brevity and quick data entry


6.3. You discover that all but those with the lowest hematocrits had higher levels of depression after their surgery and transfusion. Why might the group that had the most critical need for the transfusions not have the subsequent depression associated with this result in the rest of your sample?

Because the lowest levels of hematocrit have higher impact increasing the levels of depression. On the other hand, on those patients that received blood transfusion had incremented their levels of hematocrit, thus, their levels of depression might be lower.


7. Elevated serum lead levels in childhood are associated with lower IQ hyperactivity, aggression, poor growth, diminished academic performance, increased delinquency, seizures, and even death. The neurological damage that occurs cannot be reversed, even once exposure is stopped.


7.1. What level of measurement are your dependent variable? Are they continuous or categorical?

The dependent variables are categorical

a. Lower IQ

b. Diminished academic performance

c. Hyperactivity


7.2. If you are looking at what outcomes are associated with lead exposure in children, what is your independent variable?

The independent variable is the elevated serum lead levels in childhood.


7.3. Describe how this independent variable could be measured quantitatively or qualitatively.

Quantitatively It can be measure in micrograms per deciliter of lead in blood. Qualitatively can be measure by analyzing the level of impact related to

a. Lower IQ

b. Diminished academic performance

c. Hyperactivity


a. A nurse researcher is assessing how well patients respond to two different dosing regimens of a new drug approved to treat diabetic neuropathy. Two different dosing are administered, and side effects are monitored. Results are shown in table 1-2


Self reported Side Effects of Two Randomized Groups of 100 Individuals treated for Diabetic Neuropathy

Side Effect reported Low dosage High Dosage
Nausea 8 21
Headache 3 5
Weight Gain 1 0
Weight loss 0 6
Lethargy 3 11
Skin Rash 13 13




7.4. What is your independent variable?

Diabetic Neuropathy


7.5. In this study, the nurse researcher measures the side effect as present or not present. This variable is what level of measurement?

The level of measurement is Nominal.


7.6. If the nurse researcher as the subjects to describe their headache, would this be quantitative or qualitative variable? In the second phase of the study the nurse researcher as the study participants to report changes in certain symptoms of their neuropathy. She determines that those on the low does regimen have a similar level of pain relief and improvement in mobility as those who took high-dose drug regimen



7.7. Considering the information you know about the side effects and release of neuropathy symptoms, what made you prefer as a patient why? What else might you want to know before making the decision

Low-dose, number of relief, duration of symptoms


7.8 You are not interested in examining compliance with a DASH diet. You ask your subjects if they have or have not complied with this diet this week. Your dietary compliance variable is what level of measurement



7.9 You conclude your study by examining how compliance with the DASH diet affects the stage of her blood pressure. What is your independent variable

DASH diet compliance

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