Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts in substantive responses no less than 100 words per response with attention to current realities and applications. I need 50 words each on Ques 1 & 2

Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts in substantive responses no less than 100 words per response with attention to current realities and applications. I need 50 words each on Ques 1 & 2


Question 1: You cite one source that says the Board can be made up of amatures, and the CEO is a “total employee.” I do disagree that all the members of the Board are amateurs. But there are concerns about how the Board can see issues in an agency and thereby drive the agency in a particular direction. I can see that this issue can lead to potential conflict as well. What are your thoughts?


Worth, M. J. (2021). Nonprofit Management: Principles and practices (6th ed.). Sage Publications, Inc.

FORUM1: No two organizations are the same, so the CEO’s job can vary widely. The governing board has a responsibility to support its CEO and the CEO has the reciprocal responsibility to support the board (Worth, 2021). The relationship between the CEO and the board is very complex. The chief executive shares responsibility with eh governing board in regard to mission, financial stewardship, fundraising, accountability, planning, performance standard, and the work of the board. The CEO has to switch between leadership/management and at times may dictate. Management is concerned with day-to-day operations. The concentration is on policies, procedures, rules, and processes. Leadership is about purpose, vision, and direction, more concentration on the “where & why,” than the “how.” Staying focused on the mission is a guidepost for the CEO, for all decisions. Sometimes there are proposals that might be viable, but do not advance the mission. The CEO can use the mission as a virtual shield against pressure from staff or board.

Nonprofits sometimes appoint CEOs who are virtual strangers, and there is no personal knowledge of them before placing them in office. There is the risk that the wrong person may be appointed, with potentially serious consequences to the organization. Minimizing’s mission, values, and goals. Minimizing the risk can be accomplished in the act of selecting the CEO, someone rooted in the organizations. Still, that does not alleviate all potential for conflict. Many CEOs report low board function in fundraising, self-assessment, educating the public about their organization, planning, evaluating the CEO, monitoring programs and services, and overseeing finances (Nonprofit World, 2008). This means that there is a need to assess the criteria used to recruit board members. The criteria should align with the organizational needs and recruit people with an array of backgrounds and skills. Promoting an organizational culture which encourages all board members, not just the CEO to set the board’s agenda can forge a pathway to greater success.


Nonprofit World. (2008, November). CEOs report alarming level of dissatisfaction with boards. Nonprofit World, 26(6), 27.

Worth, M.J. (2021). Nonprofit management: Principles and practices (6th ed). Sage Publications, Inc.


FORUM 2: A nonprofit organization rests on the shoulders of the board’s guidance. Through the board’s guidance, there must be cohesion between the board and the CEO. Oftentimes, the public and internal agency members cannot decipher those roles, therefore it is imperative we dive into what the roles and responsibilities are for such titles. As mentioned in other discussions, the board functions as a group of individuals designated to account for what the organization achieves its objective(s), while also direct and monitor the activities of management (Worth, 2021). The CEO, however, is usually an individual who is at the head of the board and any decisions to which the board appoints. The CEO is the liaison between board members and the nonprofit management, who also develops the strategies for the organization to reach optimum goals.

The relationship between the board and the CEO can be very complex, depending on the organization, but in most cases, the CEO maintains power with the support of the board behind him or her. In order for the CEO to be effective, the board must be able to give up control in order to compromise. The CEO may control access to information about the organization, and indeed, the CEO may be the only one who knows what information actually exists (Worth, 2021).  The board, to some degree, often undermines the CEO’s decision and micromanages the CEO, which is undesirable. With a board that is undesirable, such a board is likely to find it difficult to attract or retain a strong chief executive and may find itself making decisions about details outside its expertise. As a result, there are several methods to prevent conflict. CEO and board members are must be working on building a positive board/CEO partnership through trust and shared experiences. In sum, it is important for the board and the CEO to clarify roles so that proper decisions can be made.


Worth, M.J. (2021). Nonprofit Management: Principles and practices (6th ed). Sage Publications, Inc.


Discussion forum 2

FORUM 3: The major difference between employees and volunteers is that employees are directly hired by an organization and receive monetary compensation not less than minimum wage while volunteers perform duties for humanitarian or personal reasons without compensation for contributions provided.

Volunteers can be motivated both intrinsically and extrinsically. According to Worth (2021), “a number of studies find that nonprofit staff have stronger intrinsic motivation than those working in for-profits, more commitment to “mission, activism, and social growth”” (p.256).  An effective Volunteer Management program would benefit from implementing volunteer rewards and recognition programs. These programs can serve as motivation to volunteers as it shows value and appreciation for their contributions as well as enhances job satisfaction. It is recommended that management design jobs and create working environments in a way that provides their volunteers with opportunities for achievement, recognition, advancement, and growth. If the nature of the work is rewarding, volunteers may be highly motivated even within the limits of nonprofits’ financial constraints (Worth, 2021).

Establishing policies and procedures for a volunteer programs are important as it sets the foundation by defining roles and responsibilities, expectations or rules, establishes boundaries, as well as provides safety guidelines to protect both the organization and volunteers. Policies allow volunteers connect to the mission of the organization as well as helps senior leaders understand the role volunteers play within the organization (NCVO Knowhow Nonprofit, 2015). Having policies provides a defined documentation for guidelines on communication, behaviors and accountability. Policies ensure compliance throughout the organization as well as reduce chances for litigation.

A current trend that is affecting volunteers is aging workforce. Baby boomers are aging and have made up a large population of volunteers. Older adults have historically made a meaningful difference in their communities through civic engagement activities. Older generations are becoming harder to recruit and will soon be underrepresented. According to Raynor (2015), “sadly, too many community-based organizations, nonprofits, and public institutions not only fail to see the value that older adults have to offer, but they also often reject offers of help from older adults” (pg. 60).  Millennials and Generation Z are now making up most of the workforce and volunteer management programs will have to get more creative with recruiting and sustaining volunteers. High turnover of volunteers impacts the organizations’ ability to successfully execute the mission.

NCVO Knowhow Nonprofit. (2015, December 15). Volunteer policies [Web page]. Retrieved from

Raynor, B. (2015). Ageism in Action? Ageism Inaction! Generations, 39(3), 58–63.

Worth, M. J. (2021). Nonprofit management: Principles and practices (6th ed.). Sage Publications, Inc.


FORUM 4: Theories of motivation hold practical worth. At the most implicit level, all managers carry their own theory of motivation (Worth, 2021). The personal belief system of a manager dictates how they interact, motivates, and address performance failure. There are some great bosses/managers who inspire loyalty and establish a pleasant/productive working environment (mine was the GM at Hardee’s of High Springs, Florida, Deonne Brown). There are screamer bosses, ranting, demanding, insulting, and thus create a dysfunctional workplace (both my daughters’ workplaces: a boat plant and a hospital surgical pavilion). These differences a reflective of the intrinsic psychology of the manager and their own needs. These methods most likely are indicative of the manager’s theory of how other people operate. This illustrates the importance of adopting an explicit theory of motivation, as opposed to an implicit “homegrown,” theory developed via their personal life experience.

Using Herzberg’s theory, two sets of factors influence motivation: Motivators/Hygiene aka: Satisfiers/Dissatisfiers.  Hygiene factors can create dissatisfaction. Motivators can be implemented in positive ways to motivate people. Motivators are also known as intrinsic motivational factors (relative to the individuals’ feelings/the actual work). Dissatisfiers relate to extrinsic motivational factors (environmental/eternal to the work). Hygiene, a term customarily associated with physical health, relates to the health of the work environment in this context.

Effective nonprofit managers keep volunteers focused on the mission, acknowledging the reward of social purpose. An organization should ideally construct a mission for the volunteer program (Kolar, Skilton, & Judge, 2016). Well beyond a single event or project, the mission should articulate program goals. The mission is a slogan for attracting volunteers who can assist in long-term jobs/high-volume events. Inclusion of the volunteer pool in the creation of the slogan helps form the mindset for volunteering. An approved written program development policy should be established at the onset of a volunteer program. This lays the foundation for proactive management.


Kolar, D., Skilton, S., & Judge, L. W. (2016). Human resource management with a volunteer workforce. Journal of Facility Planning, Design, and Management, 4(1). doi:10.18666/JFPDM-2016-V4-I1-7300

Worth, M.J. (2021). Nonprofit management: Principles and practices (6th ed). Sage Publications, Inc.

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